Research Infrastructure in Russia

     Research infrastructure comprises the facilities, resources and services that are used by the research communities to conduct research and foster innovation. The main elements of Research Infrastructure in Russia are Joint Use Centers (JUC) and Unique Scientific Equipment & Complexes (USE&C).
      “Research Infrastructure of the modern Russia” portal encompasses the information about 400 JUCs and 150 USE&Cs in different thematic domains (http://www.ckp-rf.ru/).
       As a rule, JUCs are based within Universities or research organisations of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
       At the beginning the National network of Joint Use Centers was supported by the Russian Foundation of Basic Research (RFBR). Since 2002 the Research Infrastructure has been developed in the framework of the following Federal Targeted Programmes:
-     “R&D in the Priority Fields of S&T Development” (2002-2006),
-     “R & D in Priority Areas of Development of the Russian Scientific & Technological Complex
  2007-2013”,
-     “R & D in Priority Areas of Development of the Russian Scientific & Technological Complex
   2014-2020”: Activities 3.1.1 (Support and development of Unique Scientific Equipment &
   Complexes) and 3.1.2 (Support and development of Joint Use Centers),
-     “Development of Infrastructure for Nanoindustry in the Russian Federation in 2008-2011”,
-      Leading Scientists programme (Resolution No.220 of the Government of the Russian
   Federation of April 9, 2010), the aim of which is bringing world-renowned scientists to
   Russian Universities and creating competitive research laboratories.
   The Presidential Council for Science and Education on a regular basis discusses issues of developing Research infrastructure in Russia, in particular, how to support JUCs and improve the assessment of their efficiency.  
     A key area of Russia-EU S&T cooperation involves the development of global Research
Infrastructures including the large-scale "Mega-science" projects. Russia and the EU actively collaborate on a number of Research Infrastructure initiatives located in Europe, for example the EU X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL); the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR); the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER); the Large Hadron Collider (LHC, CERN); the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF); project Borexino. All these projects have a European dimension and participants, and are located on the ESFRI Roadmap. It is the first time that Russia is investing to budget of research facilities (XFEL, FAIR, ITER), which are not located on its own territory.
       Currently 6 "Mega-science" projects have been launched in Russia:
-    Tokamak fusion reactor IGNITOR (Russia-Italy joint project open to accession of other international partners), Troitsk Institute for Innovation & Fusion Research (TRINITI),
-    High-flux research nuclear reactor PIK, St.-Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics in Gatchina (in partnership with Germany and with probable involvement of North European and Baltic States),
-    Synchrotron light source, Multiturn Accelerator-Recuperator Source MARS, National Research Centre "Kurchatov Institute",
-    Nuclotron based Ion Collider Facility NICA, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna.
-    Sub-Exawatt Laser based International Research Centre on Extreme Light Fields, Institute of Applied Physics of the RAS, Nizhny Novgorod
-    Electron-Positron Collider Super C-Tau Factory Project, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk.
    The European Commission have given a green light to a new project CREMLIN (Connecting Russian and European Measures for Large-scale Research Infrastructures) of Horizon 2020. The three-year project will create stronger links between European and Russian research institutions in the area of large-scale facilities and enable a more intensive scientific and technological cooperation. CREMLIN should support European scientists to become engaged in major Russian projects. For example, the research program of the planned Russian Research Reactor PIK, close to St. Petersburg, could be coordinated with those of European neutron sources, or the ion acceleration system NICA could be aligned with FAIR.
     A promising area in EU-Russia cooperation will be e-infrastructure.
     Russia and the EU also collaborate in the frame of Carnegie Group, the Group of Senior Officials (GSO) on global Research Infrastructures, composed of representatives from the G8+05 countries. The 5th session of GSO on global Research Infrastructures took place at the headquarters of the Italian Institute for Nuclear Physics (Rome, December 15-16, 2014). The Russian delegation confirmed an intention to extend international S&T cooperation in various thematic areas, to enhance an international integration of advanced knowledge and innovative technologies.
  

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